A person with a personality disorder would normally be dealing with one of 10 main personality disorders. The definition of a personality disorder is an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment. In order for the pattern of behavior to constitute a personality disorder, it must cause significant functional impairment or subjective distress (DSM-5).
The neurotransmitters that regulate the body’s reactions to stress are norepinephrine, epinephrine and cortisol. Acute (shorter periods) and chronic (longer periods) levels of stress can be caused when there are increased levels of these hormones. With increased levels of stress the heart rate increases, blood vessels dilate and blood pressure increases. According to the American Psychological Association, chronic stress is experienced over a prolonged period of time and can contribute to long-term problems in the heart. Continue reading
According to the National Institute of Mental Health, borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a very serious personality disorder. It is traditionally marked by unstable moods, emotional dysregulation, impulsivity, interpersonal issues, self-harm, suicidal behavior and unstable relationships. Borderline personality disorder carries a lot of the same attributes as other personality disorders hence the name “borderline” personality disorder. There hasn’t been a specific gene that has been shown to directly cause BPD, however studies in twins suggest this illness has strong hereditary links. Environmental factors such as traumatic life events, childhood abuse or neglect from parents is also said to put people at a higher risk of developing BPD. Because of the trauma factor in BPD, it is very similar to PTSD. Continue reading